To be a relevant player in the future power mix,manbetx官方网站coal power efficiency and costs must improve,而研究和开发领域的技术也承诺做到这一点。
Although most experts agree that manbetx官方网站coal will remain a dominant source of fuel for baseload power over the near-term in several regions,面对严重manbetx官方网站的市场混乱和环境问题，煤电行业在保持经济相关性方面的努力被广泛地记录下来。The manbetx网站industry's response to the myriad issues affecting the sector have been multi-pronged.常用的方法要求对监管改革采取行动，或寻求承认现有煤炭船队对能源可靠性和安全性的贡献。manbetx官方网站
近来，many stakeholders are also strengthening calls for increased investment in manbetx官方网站coal generation technology through research and development (R&D),演示，and deployment.In early October,for example,recommendations endorsed by the National manbetx官方网站Coal Council,a U.S.nonprofit organization that serves as an advisory group to the Energy Secretary,urged more investment in technology to achieve a lengthy list of objectives.
Across the world,gains promised by technological advancements are as widely sought,said Dr.Lesley Sloss洁净煤中心的专家，manbetx官方网站国际能源署（IEA）于1975年成立的一项技术合作，旨在提供有关煤炭如何平衡manbetx官方网站energy trilemma"供应安全，affordability,and environmental issues.“实现更高效、更清洁的电力生产是一个普遍的目标，“and governments and manbetx网站industry stakeholders want to"ensure that the manbetx官方网站coal power generation systems of the future are high-efficiency,low-emissions [HELE] technologies,“she explained.
But Sloss,who is preparing a detailed report for the center on the technology readiness of advanced manbetx官方网站coal-based power generation systems (that will be published in early 2019),cautioned the success of current and future energy projects will largely be determined by how they fit into prospective new energy mixes.“For the most part,这些系统，它提供了灵活性，可靠性，and the use of indigenous fuel supplies whilst helping to mitigate CO二排放，会有明显的优势，“she said.Today,several technologies are emerging that fit many sought-after characteristics: They can use manbetx官方网站coal,frequently of low quality,生产灵活的能源和/或替代化工产品，通常具有碳捕获和储存能力（CCS）。“However,虽然这些技术确实是需要的，if available,很多人都处于发展阶段，as such,may be considered expensive or risky investments,“Sloss said.
In their fifth fossil energy technology"roadmap"issued in July 2018,无党派的美国电力研究所（EPRI）和碳利用研究委员会（CURC，an manbetx网站industry manbetx官方网站coalition focused on technology solutions to keep fossil fuels in a"balanced"美国电力投资组合）确定了一些技术，在2025年至2035年的未来市场条件下，这些技术有助于煤炭与其他电力来源的成本竞争力。manbetx官方网站所确定的技术”正在准备进行大规模的试点试验，一些正在准备进行商业示范，“the joint initiative noted.
水技术。2020岁，路线图建议，应在废水处理系统中使用的微量金属浓度的近实时过程监测仪/分析仪方面取得进展，伴随着烟气水分回收技术的试点项目测试，先进的混合冷却，直接空冷技术。By 2025,先进的混合冷却技术可以带来收益，以及改善预处理的水管理，先进的膜和/或热处理系统，and encapsulation of wastewater and pollutants by solids fixation and stabilization.
Flexibility.“Flexibility is so important that every program in EPRI's Generation Sector is examining it in some way,“noted EPRI Senior Program Manager Mike Caravaggio in July.EPRI is exploring novel treatments that produce protective coatings for components,试图提高锅炉寿命和可用性，investigating how to better manage fatigue,and studying steam flow.2020岁，integrated instrumentation and control approaches,灵活的操作模拟器，以及改进的污染物控制系统（能够灵活操作）；should be available,the CURC-EPRI Roadmap suggests.And by 2025,一个大飞行员用先进的柔性操作技术”could be underway.Efforts are also underway to improve reliable operation for units operating in"循环模式通过使用新材料改进焊接和部件制造，and by providing improved diagnostic techniques,including better sensors and controls for early identification of wear-and-tear problems.
目前约有250千兆瓦的超临界容量在网上——亚洲有90%（224千兆瓦）的超临界容量（在亚洲还有88.2千兆瓦正在建设中，主要在中国和日本）and most of the remaining 10% is in Europe (19.2 GW)—and efficiency improvements continue,作为博士安德鲁·米切纳，IEA洁净煤中心总经理，manbetx官方网站11月注意到。The Waigaoqiao No.3 ultrasupercricital plant in Shanghai,中国for example,increased its original efficiency from 43% to more than 47%,“这是一个巨大的成就，“闵晨耳说。Meanwhile,testing is underway on nickel superalloys that could help achieve the 700C steam target in advanced ultrasupercritical (AUSC) systems (Figure 1)—and boost efficiency to beyond 50%—in the U.S.,Europe,日本and China;印度已经承诺significant funding"to AUSC technology.
|1.“提高效率的原因是将蒸汽温度从最高蒸汽温度为540℃的亚临界过程提高到了超临界系统，在超临界系统中我们可以看到最高约580℃到超临界。which is the state-of-the-art at present,where we'd be looking at 620C,maybe towards 640C;and then advanced systems,尚处于开发示范阶段，在某些情况下，蒸汽温度约为700摄氏度或更高，“explained Dr.安德鲁·明切纳，国际能源署（IEA）洁净煤中心总经理。manbetx官方网站The global average efficiency of manbetx官方网站coal power plants is about 35%,he noted.Courtesy: IEA Clean manbetx官方网站Coal Centre,“HELE manbetx官方网站Coal Power Plants Worldwide,“November 14,2018|
Research gains are already making their way to market.通用电气的新蒸汽技术，for example,uses nickel superalloys,包括HR6W和铬镍铁合金，in its commercially available 650C–670C system.GE says the technology is capable of a 49.1% (net) efficiency,到目前为止，至少两家正在开拓AUSC项目的公司选择了其蒸汽产品：Yildirim公司在土耳其的2 x 800-MW Karaburun进口煤炭项目，manbetx官方网站and Huaibei Shenergy Power Generation Co.for its Pinghsan II plant.
However,according to Sloss,advancement of AUSC still poses challenges.“The advanced metals and alloys required to cope with the stresses of high-temperature and -pressure combustion are becoming available,but for utilities to invest in a full-scale plant,需要进一步的测试和适用性和可靠性证明，“she said.Still,the CURC-EPRI Roadmap anticipates that a large-scale AUSC demonstration plant,either greenfield or retrofit,with steam temperatures of 760C could be operational by 2025,到2035年将有一家商业工厂上线。
A handful of commercial plants worldwide already employ processes to gasify manbetx官方网站coal and produce a syngas that can be burned in a combustion turbine coupled to a combined cycle steam turbine for power generation—or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).“This type of system can work with a large range of manbetx官方网站coals,including low-quality manbetx官方网站coal and lignites;it has lower water usage than most conventional plants,最后产生的气体相对干净，适合进行一点处理，以便为CCU做好准备。“said Sloss.“However,大多数的示威活动都被证明是昂贵和有问题的。”“
Meanwhile,most new projects in the proposal or developmental stages are currently delayed or on hold.Of 20 IGCC projects proposed in 2013 for China,only three appear to be moving forward,Sloss said,noting that IGCC's"teething issues"表明必须大幅降低成本。“Advantages of IGCC are often considered not sufficient enough to offset the increased cost and risk."IGCC's key advantage over state-of-the-art ultrasupercritical technology is its suitability for CCUS,但是，增加碳捕获技术可以将净IGCC效率降低7%至11%。she said.
Among other components that could benefit from technology innovations are air separation units (which get oxygen to the combustion zone),which are both costly and can be a significant source of parasitic power.还继续努力升级气化炉系统，用于热气体净化，减少腐蚀，and advanced turbines,she said.
亚洲共同努力改善政府间气候变化专门委员会”有助于将这项技术从“死亡之谷”中拉出来，'"which Sloss describes as the treacherous area between demonstration and commercial deployment in which technology becomes mired because it is too problematic or expensive for investors to consider.研发也将继续进行多代，which provides flexibility owing to its capacity to produce chemicals as well as power,德国和波兰正在进行小规模的示威活动。However,polygeneration's success will depend on the right market that will reward both dispatchable power and production of chemicals,Sloss said.
Oxyfuel Combustion Gains Steam
自1980年以来，开展了15多个小型氧燃料燃烧试验或示范项目。但低温脱除空气中的氮，利用氧气和循环烟气进行化石燃料燃烧的过程尚未停止，despite its promise.CURC-EPRI路线图记录了该方法。”结果在有利于循环的温度下，从烟气中回收潜热的效率更高，辅助功率降低；由于设备较小，可能降低资本成本；以及一种更容易捕获一氧化碳的烟气二用于使用或隔离。”“
Sloss attributes the technology's slow uptake to a"资金不足”in the U.S.和英国。在中国，跨栏有“more to do with the perceived risk of projects,“she said.其中包括复杂性，高成本，以及天然气处理系统的电力需求，including for the air separation unit and the CO二processing unit,她注意到。Research with wide potential continues.The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE),for example,recently awarded San Antonio–based Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) $1 million to pursue a large pilot design that will integrate flameless pressurized oxy-combustion technology into a 50-MW pilot power plant.第1阶段during which researchers will collect environmental information and secure a site,计划于2019年7月结束。
Chemical Looping Combustion Pushes Forward
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) technology typically includes two fluidized-bed reactors and uses metal oxide or limestone as a carrier that is oxidized in an air reactor and then delivers oxygen for fuel combustion in the fuel reactor—and its key benefit is that it efficiently produces oxy-combustion without cryogenic air separation.
While the CURC-EPRI Roadmap envisions a first-of-a-kind commercial project starting in 2027,斯洛斯指出，这项技术仍在theoretical stage,“尽管有希望的发展可能在未来十年取得重大进展。Japan is looking to establish its CLC technology,目标净热效率为46%，含一氧化碳二capture,for plants of between 100 MW and 500 MW by 2030.Babcock和Wilcox还正在努力完成一个在多佛的多佛照明和电力设施的10兆瓦直接CLC试点工厂的可行性研究，Ohio,which could be operational by 2020.
A Buzz Around Supercritical CO二Power Cycles
Two versions of supercritical CO二power (sCO二) cycles have garnered much interest of late: an indirect-fired version that obtains heat in the conventional way from a combustion process via a heat exchanger for a sCO二power island,and a direct-fired version that uses oxy-combustion within the cycle to generate a sCO二and water stream that drives a power turbine.Both processes use sCO二as a working fluid as well as more compact turbomachinery (due to the high power-density of CO二）which can lower plant capital costs.Additionally,这些技术提供了比传统电力循环更高的净电厂效率。它们都可以捕获碳：间接循环可以进行燃烧后碳捕获或氧燃烧，and direct cycles inherently create a stream of CO二at pipeline pressure for use or sequestration.
The CURC-EPRI Roadmap is optimistic that a large-scale demonstration of an indirect-fired sCO二system for manbetx官方网站coal will be operational by 2035.Some key projects are underway.Armed with DOE funding,Echogen电力系统，西门子and EPRI are teaming to develop a large-scale manbetx官方网站coal-fired sCO二pilot plant,尽管该项目的具体内容以及何时开始尚不清楚。This October,meanwhile,SwRI,along with the Gas Technology Institute,GE Global Research,and the DOE,据报道，将使用通用电气开发的10兆瓦超临界改造电力试点电厂破土动工。desk-sized"sCO二涡轮（图2）。
|2.The Supercritical Transformational Electric Power (STEP) pilot plant,which broke ground on October 15,2018,is a $119 million first-of-its-kind 10-MW supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO二设施。Because of the efficiency of sCO二热介质,步进式涡轮机械的尺寸可以是传统电厂部件的十分之一，providing the potential to shrink the environmental footprint as well as the construction cost of any new facilities.A model"desk-sized"sCO二涡轮机，which can power 10,000 homes,is shown here.提供单位：天然气技术研究所|
Meanwhile,the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center is also leading a project to build a direct-fired sCO二cycle pilot plant,which would further technology development of the manbetx官方网站coal-based Allam Cycle.全新的Allam循环是在拉波特进行的备受关注的25兆瓦（50兆瓦）天然气燃烧示范的基础。Texas,该项目有望在2020年投入使用，并承诺效率约为58%。However,正如斯洛斯所指出的，customizing the Allam Cycle for manbetx官方网站coal could require"bolting on of a gasification plant to produce syngas,“这使其面临气化技术面临的类似风险。“最大的挑战将是先进的可回收燃气轮机和热交换器，“she added.
The advent of utility-scale gas-fired fuel cell power plants,就像2014年在韩国开放的59兆瓦庆吉绿色能源熔融碳酸盐燃料电池公园一样，are helping to spur fuel cell technology forward.The use of solid manbetx官方网站coal in fuel cells is"currently at bench scale,“Sloss said,添加，however,集成气化燃料电池（IGFC）系统表现出最大的承诺。”The technology essentially integrates a manbetx官方网站coal gasification process with high-temperature fuel cells to create ultra-high-efficiency,low-emissions power generation systems.Experts note a simple IGFC system is similar to an IGCC system,but the gas turbine power island is replaced by a fuel cell island.
The first IGFC demonstration plant with CCS is currently under development in Japan and could be operational by 2021.Launched in April 2012,166兆瓦Osaki Coolgen IGCC电厂的IGFC项目（图3）由日本新能源和工业技术开发组织资助，由Osaki Coolgen公司运营。(a joint venture of J-POWER and the Chugoku Electric Power Co.).Osaki CoolGen is seeking to demonstrate IGFC with CO二separation and capture technology in three stages: verification of scaled-up EAGLE gasification technology;向IGCC系统添加碳捕获设备；以及燃料电池系统的整合。目标是使IGFC系统的效率达到55%。
|3.广岛大阪冷源吹氧一体化气化联合循环项目，日本2016年开始运营。该项目目前正在整合碳捕获系统，and by 2021,it seeks to demonstrate a manbetx官方网站coal system integrated with a fuel cell system.Courtesy: Osaki CoolGen Corp.|
However,Sloss noted,“moving to test and pilot scale of these IGFC systems is dependent on the success of the current IGCC plants on which they will be based;IGFC systems are extremely expensive to build and risky,考虑到这项技术是如此的新。”Still,她补充说：“通过将IGCC工厂切换到IGFC，重大成本将被抵消，如果证明IGFC工艺不可行，还应为工厂恢复到IGCC提供潜力。”■